Job Board

Career opportunities in vector borne disease science.

If you would like to share a job posting, please send the advertisement to flvbdcoe@gmail.com.

 

 

Application due date: Open December 1, 2019 until filled


Our group, the Southern and Central Africa International Centers of Excellence for
Malaria Research (ICEMR), in the Departments of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and
Molecular Microbiology and Immunology at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of
Public Health, is looking for a postdoctoral fellow to work on projects related to malaria
aimed at understanding the role of parasite and vector genomics and molecular
epidemiology in malaria transmission dynamics. Applicants interested in parasite or
vector genomics are encouraged to apply. This position will blend computational, fieldbased,
and laboratory-based methods, but the applicant is not required to have
extensive experience in all three components. The ideal applicant will have a
background in computation genomics and quantitative experience in epidemiology,
statistics, biology, and/or ecology. An interest in public health research related to
disease prevention and control in international settings is highly desirable. In addition to
analytic work, the position will provide opportunities to engage with collaborators in
Zambia and Zimbabwe. Applicants with, or nearing completion of, a doctoral degree in
epidemiology, statistics, biology, biostatistics, or a related public health or biological field
will be considered.


The successful applicant will work with Dr. William Moss, Dr. Douglas Norris, and Dr.
Amy Wesolowski, and colleagues on a project primarily funded by a training grant from
the National Institute of Health on vector-borne disease research. The successful
applicant will be joining a highly collaborative group (ICEMR), an active malaria
research community (Johns Hopkins Malaria Research Institute), and opportunities to
work with other computational groups (iddynamics.jhsph.edu) at JHU.


The position will be for 1-2 years, depending on applicant interest and career plans. Due
to funding requirements for this position, successful applicant must be US citizens or
green card holders.


Interested candidates should contact Douglas Norris (douglas.norris@jhu.edu) and Amy
Wesolowski (awesolowski@jhu.edu) with a CV, statement of interest, and references.
Applications will be considered on a rolling basis from December 1, 2019 until filled.

The U. S. National Tick Collection at the James H. Oliver, Jr., Institute for Coastal Plain Science (Georgia Southern University) and the CDC Southeastern Center of Excellence in Vector Borne Diseases are offering the “3rd Annual Tick Workshop” at Georgia Southern (Statesboro, GA).

Workshop Dates: May 17 – 30, 2020

Topics covered include: 

  • Tick systematics, identification, classification, population genetics, phylogeography (morphological and molecular taxonomy).
  • Visit of the U.S. National Tick Collection
  • Tick ecology, behavior
  • Field collecting experience
  • Tick anatomy, physiology
  • Tick surveillance methods
  • Spatial modeling of distribution
  • Tick control
  • Tick-Borne diseases: bacterial (Lyme, rickettioses, anaplasmoses, ehrlichioses), viral, and protozoic, including, clinical aspects, diagnosis, microbiology, ecoepidemiology

For more information and to complete an interest form, see GSU workshop webpage

JOB OPPORTUNITY

CDPH Senior Public Health Biologist

The Vector-Borne Disease Section of the California Department of Public Health is recruiting for a Public Health Biologist at the Senior level. Public Health Biologists conduct activities relating to the prevention, surveillance, epidemiology, and control of vector-borne diseases in California. This position serves as the lead Public Health Biologist for the statewide tick and tick-borne disease surveillance program and is located in Richmond (San Francisco Bay Area), California. Salary range is $6210 - $8096/month (up to $97,152/year). Applications must be submitted by November 20.

For more information and to apply, click here.  

Please also indicate your interest in the position by emailing your CV or resume to Vicki Kramer vicki.kramer@cdph.ca.gov. Please contact Dr. Kramer, Chief, Vector-Borne Disease Section, with any questions, by email or phone (916) 552-9730.

The Medical Entomologist performs highly advanced (senior-level) consultative services, technical assistance, and field work relating to medical entomology and the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases pursuant to statute and to rules adopted by the Texas Health and Human Services Commission; develops policy on the role of the Department of State Health Services (DSHS) in vector control; serves as a DSHS liaison to other state and federal agencies and with representatives from industry, professional organizations, academic institutions, local programs, and local health officials on vector-related issues and projects; organizes, provides leadership, or represents DSHS on project teams whether in-house or in collaboration with groups of representatives from a wide range of stakeholders, e.g. professional organizations and local, state, or federal governmental agencies; develops short-term goals and long- range plan objectives for vector control in Texas; participates in writing and managing vector control-related grants; serves as an expert consultant for vector-control matters and provides highly advanced technical advice and direction to DSHS program staff, local programs, and local health officials, plus the public; manages, develops and coordinates training programs; and maintains working knowledge of laws and rules that directly affect DSHS activities concerning vector-control programs. Works under minimal supervision, with extensive latitude for the use of initiative and independent judgment. Employee actively participates and/or serves in a supporting role to meet the agency's obligations for disaster response and/or recovery or Continuity of Operations (COOP) activation.  

The application closing date is November 4, 2019. 

The application and more information can be found here

AMCA is seeking an independent contractor to fulfill a specific scope of work relative to its Technical Advisor functions. The Technical Advisor is responsible for providing the following services: oversight, guidance and continuity within the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) for approved projects; public relations; interaction with state, regional and local mosquito associations, and industry; liaison with legislative and regulatory consultants and bodies and related activities (“Scope of Work”). The Technical Advisor consults with the AMCA President, who represents the Board of Directors (BOD), and/or a designee as appointed by the President. In coordination with the BOD, the Technical Advisor plans, organizes, and directs various components of the AMCA, conducts related external work as deemed appropriate, and serves as the primary representative for AMCA including participation with regional, state, federal and nongovernmental agencies, organizations and programs.

Requests for Proposal (RFP) will be accepted through November 1, 2019 at 5pm PST.

Find more information here

An Assistant Professor - Mosquito/Arbovirus Research position is open at the Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory (Institute of Food and Agriculture, University of Florida) in Vero Beach, Florida. 

This is a 9-month tenure-accruing position that will be 80% research (Florida Agricultural Experiment Station) and 20% extension (Florida Cooperative Extension Service), available at the Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, at the University of Florida. This assignment may change in accordance with the needs of the unit.  Research duties focus on the biology and control of mosquitoes and the pathogens they transmit with emphasis on developing and evaluating information and tools relevant to mosquito and pathogen management. Tenure will accrue in the Department of Entomology and Nematology. The successful candidate will participate actively in undergraduate and graduate education by chairing and serving on graduate committees, supervising thesis, dissertation and undergraduate research, and publishing research results with students. Faculty are encouraged to participate in professional development activities related to teaching and advising and may teach courses and seminars. The successful candidate will seek contract and grant funding actively to support his/her program.

Additional information can be found here

This position will remain open until a viable applicant pool is determined. 

The President’s Malaria Initiative: Evaluation & Research-to-Use Implementation Project Addendum # 4 to the USAID Global Health Broad Agency Announcement for Research and Development (2018)

Through this BAA addendum, USAID seeks creation of a malaria evaluation and research partnership, via an organization or group of organizations, to conduct future program evaluation and research activities, establish consensus for new collaborative research ideas, synthesize and conduct meta-analysis of existing malaria data, and provide solutions to improve evaluation and research data utilization.

Interested applicants should submit an Expression of Interest by October 24, 2019. 

More information and submission instructions can be found here and here

An Assistant Professor - Mosquito Ecologist position is open at the Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory (Institute of Food and Agriculture, University of Florida) in Vero Beach, Florida. 

This is a 9-month tenure-accruing position that will be 80% research and 20% extension, available at the Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, at the University of Florida. This assignment may change in accordance with the needs of the unit.  Duties will include research and extension focusing on ecology of vectors and vector-borne pathogens with emphasis on field ecology of mosquitoes. Tenure will accrue in the Department of Entomology and Nematology. The successful candidate will participate actively in undergraduate and graduate education by chairing and serving on graduate committees, supervising thesis, dissertation and undergraduate research, and publishing research results with students. Faculty are encouraged to participate in professional development activities related to teaching and advising and may teach courses and seminars. The successful candidate will seek contract and grant funding actively to support his/her program.

Additional information can be found here

For full consideration, candidates should apply and submit additional materials by November 15, 2019. 

Students are encouraged to submit an abstract for the American Mosquito Control Association's annual Student Competition (oral paper presentation). The 86th AMCA Annual Meeting will be held in Portland, OR (March 16 - 20, 2020). 

Students eligible for the competition must be either 1) currently enrolled in an undergraduate or graduate program (at the time of submitting the abstract) or 2) have graduated within 12 months of the abstract submission deadline date. The work presented must have been done while the presenter was enrolled in the undergraduate or graduate degree program. Presentations will be competitively judged. Winners receive monetary prizes! 

Deadline for submission is October 1, 2019

More guidelines about the competition can be found here. General information on submitting can be found here.

The Midwest Center of Excellence for Vector Borne Disease is hosting the first annual Tick Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Academy! The Academy will be held November 6th and 7th at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. 

Participants will learn valuable skills from world-class experts to improve performance and outcomes from tick management efforts: 

     1. Key concepts in tick biology, disease diagnosis and treatment

     2. Hands-on, practical strategies and tactics to reduce tick populations and public health impacts

     3. Current knowledge gaps, innovative research efforts and anticipated near-term advances

The Academy is geared towards pest management and landscape care professionals, facility/institutional/public grounds managers, educators, Extension, public health, government, and school and state regulatory professionals. 

Additional information and the registration form can be found here

Please contact Maria Weber (mweber@ipminstitute.org) for information on scholarships or for any other questions.

Postdoctoral Positions in Sultana Laboratory for Vector-borne Diseases and Vaccine Research

Two postdoctoral positions in studying interactions of Ixodes scapularis ticks with tick-borne viruses are available immediately in the Laboratories, directed by Drs. Hameeda Sultana and Girish Neelakanta at Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, and USA. The laboratories of Drs. Sultana and Neelakanta are well equipped and use multidisciplinary approaches such as Virology, microbiology, vector biology, genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, bioinformatics, genomics and cell biology to understand the interactions of human pathogens with vectors and their mammalian hosts.

Highly motivated and interested candidates with a Ph.D., degree in virology, vector-borne diseases, molecular biology, genetics, biochemistry or microbiology are especially encouraged to apply for these advertised positions. Candidates with strong background in murine models, gene regulation, protein purification, protein-protein interactions and cell culture work are also highly encouraged to apply. Applicants should send (Email: hsultana@odu.edu) the required documents to Dr. Sultana or upload at this link.

The Massachusetts Department of Public Health (DPH) seeks to hire an Epidemiologist to assist in responding to over 50 communicable diseases that occur in residents of Massachusetts. Many of these diseases require extensive and time-consuming response efforts and include response to zoonotic and vector-borne diseases. The need for staff to focus on these populations when designing prevention programs is critical. 

An integral component of this effort is the contributing of a team of epidemiologists who oversee all data collected and use that data to target response efforts appropriately. This position would oversee these epidemiological efforts in addition to overseeing zoonotic and vector-borne diseases. The selected candidate would also work under the guidance of the State Epidemiologist/State Public Health Veterinarian, Division Medical Director, and Zoonotic Epidemiologist III. The incumbent will join a team of experienced epidemiologists in providing strategic direction for all activities of the Epidemiology Program as they respond to known and emerging infectious diseases. 

Please Note: This position may be required to respond to infectious disease emergencies on a 24 hours/day, 7 days/week basis by determining appropriate control methods in order to alleviate the crisis. 

For more details regarding duties, responsibilities, and qualifications, please visit this page

Funding is available at Georgia Southern University (GSU) starting January 2020 to support one Master student to participate in studies of the taxonomy, evolution, and population genetics of ticks. The successful applicants will be expected to assist with on-going studies investigating taxonomic and evolutionary issues within the hard-tick family Ixodidae. The successful candidate will have the unique opportunity to contribute to the curatorial activities at the U.S. National Tick Collection, a Smithsonian collection housed at Georgia Southern.

The successful applicants will also be expected to enter the M.S. program in Biology at GSU in spring 2020 and will develop hypothesis-driven research projects investigating some aspects of morphological and molecular hard-tick systematics.

The successful applicant will attend the yearly Tick Workshop now offered at the U.S. National Tick Collection and help organizing it.

The successful applicants will receive a stipend of approximately $16,000/year for two years. Tuition and basic major medical insurance will also be provided.

The U.S. National Tick Collection (https://cosm.georgiasouthern.edu/usntc/) is the world largest tick collection, with over a million specimens from every continent. It is a recognized center for the study of ticks and, sometimes, tick-borne diseases. It is an incomparable resource of material and information for researchers from all over the world.

Interested students should submit a resume, undergraduate transcripts, a statement of interest and career goals, and two letters of reference to Lorenza Beati (lorenzabeati@georgiasouthern.edu), Institute for Coastal Plain Science(https://cosm.georgiasouthern.edu/icps/) and Department of Biology, Georgia Southern University, P.O. Box 8042, Statesboro, GA 30460-8042. The recipient will be selected from the pool of applicants who have submitted all materials by November 15, 2019. More information about the Department of Biology at GSU can be found at http://www.bio.georgiasouthern.edu/ and information on applying to graduate school can be found at http://cogs.georgiasouthern.edu.

 

The Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington DC invites applications for Postdoctoral Research Fellowships in the following areas:

 

Insect Vectors and Emerging Vector-borne Diseases

 

The successful candidate will be joining a multidisciplinary team of scientists interested in the development of sequence-based detection methods for ongoing field-forward surveillance efforts. Specifically, the candidate will be responsible for developing molecular identification methods for insect vectors (e.g. mosquitoes, ticks, fleas) and emerging vector-borne diseases. The candidate must have acquired a Ph.D. in entomology, microbiology or a related discipline within the past five years and have demonstrated experience in arthropod disease vectors, molecular biology and nucleic acid sequencing. Previous experience with nanopore sequencing is highly desirable but not required. The candidate will have access to state-of-the-art facilities and must be self-motivated, well-organized and possess excellent written and oral communication skills. This postdoctoral position is available through a competitive process with the National Research Council Associateship Program. U.S. citizenship or permanent residency is required. Qualified candidates should contact Gary J. Vora at gary.vora@nrl.navy.mil.

The Naval Research Laboratory is an Equal Opportunity Employer.

October 7-18, 2019 University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB), Galveston, Texas

Theory Modules include: arbovirology, rickettsiology, and arthropod biosafety.

Practicum Modules include: Mock experiments with mosquito and tick-borne viruses, and tick-borne rickettsia. Vector (mosquito and tick) manipulation in containment laboratories. Vector (mosquito and tick) competency and transmission analysis

Prerequisites: BS in Biological Sciences

Selection Criteria: Letters of reference (3), relevant experience, CV, and letter of justification from the candidate. Only US citizens and permanent residents are eligible.

Submission Deadline: August 15, 2019

For More Information & Application Submission: Email dobouyer "at" utmb.edu; Nivasila "at" utmb.edu

No CHARGE for the Course. Accommodations will be provided

We are seeking a full-time Lecturer to start on July 1, 2019. The successful candidate will join Cornell’s vector biology program team and the Northeast Regional Center for Excellence in Vector-Borne Diseases (NEVBD) to deliver a Master of Science in Entomology http://neregionalvectorcenter.com/ms-in-entomology.The purpose of this effort is to educate the next generation of vector biologists and public health practitioners.  The NEVBD is a fast paced, exciting, and innovative program where on-the-job experience in a variety of public health areas can be obtained. Cornell University, nestled among the Finger Lakes and beautiful gorges of upstate New York, has a long and rich academic tradition as an intellectual hub in the Northeast USA.

Every fall, the Lecturer will co- teach “Introduction to Disease Vectors” (ENTOM 4520; 3 credits) with a laboratory section (ENTOM 4521; 1 credit).  In addition, they will develop and offer a topical seminar course (2 credits) in an area related to their expertise.  Potential options include, but are not limited to: current topics in tick biology and disease transmission; current topics in mosquito biology and disease transmission; advanced vector behavior; vaccines for vector-borne diseases; novel strategies for vector-borne disease control; vector-borne disease modeling; and emerging pathogens and potential introductions to the USA. 

Every spring, the Lecturer will teach “Vector Control” (ENTOM 6530, 2 credits) and co-teach a “Capstone Seminar in Vector-Borne Diseases” (2 credits).

The Lecturer will collaborate with Professor Laura Harrington and other members of the NEVBD team to support the MS in Entomology program, including student advising and mentoring, practicum placement, and preparation and completion of program competencies and projects. She/he will advise approximately 3-5 students per year and will be responsible for coordinating the 10 week internship program placements and evaluation. In addition, the Lecturer will support students in the design of their practicum project, thesis preparation and presentation, development of ePortfolios, and in the final practical and written exam.

The successful candidate is encouraged to conduct some research in an area of their expertise that contributes to the goals of the NEVBD.  This is a full time position through 31 May 2020, with renewal contingent on performance and availability of funds.

Qualified candidates must have an MS, MPH or PhD in Entomology, Public Health, Ecology or related fields, with experience with vector control and/or public health. Prior experience with arthropod taxonomy, surveillance and control is essential.  Prior teaching experience highly desired. Outstanding written and public speaking/oral communication skills are also important.  The Lecture should have sound planning, outstanding organization, problem solving and coordination skills, and the ability to work as a team member and under pressure.

**This position will be posted to Academic Jobs Online**

We are seeking qualified applicants for a Research Biologist position at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Bacterial Diseases Branch in Fort Collins, Colorado.  The federal pay grade of the position at hiring will depend upon the level of the applicant’s experience and credentials.  Likely salary range will be from $81,451 - $125,910.

The ideal candidate should have a doctorate degree in Biological Sciences (preferably disease ecology or medical entomology) with several years of post-doctoral experience, a robust publication record, and a strong desire to do applied public health ecology/entomology research and service activities.  Previous research experience focused on Lyme disease, plague, tularemia or tick-borne relapsing fever is desirable, but not required.

The person sought will serve as a key member of an interdisciplinary entomology and ecology team.  The primary activities of the team center around 1) identifying when and where persons are at risk for exposure to vector-borne bacterial pathogens (primarily focused on agents causing Lyme disease, tickborne relapsing fever, tularemia and plague), 2) elucidating how those pathogens are maintained in natural transmission cycles, and 3) developing and evaluating strategies to reduce human risk of exposure to ticks, fleas and their associated human pathogens.  In addition to conducting research in these broad areas, we expect the successful candidate to be actively involved in service activities and to engage with external public health partners.

The position can be filled as soon as a qualified candidate is identified, preferably with a start date in late 2019 or early 2020.

If you are interested in this opportunity, please send a CV and a list of 3 references via e-mail to Rebecca Eisen: dyn2 "at" cdc.gov

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Division of Intramural Research (DIR) is seeking an outstanding scientist for a tenure-track/tenure-eligible position to carry out independent research on vector biology and arthropod-borne bacterial pathogens in the Laboratory of Bacteriology (LB), located on NIAID’s Rocky Mountain Laboratories (RML) campus in Hamilton, Montana.

Applicants should submit a curriculum vitae (CV), bibliography, and two- to three-page description of the proposed research program. Additionally, three letters of reference must be sent directly from the referees. Please include in your CV a description of mentoring and outreach activities in which you have been involved, especially those involving women and persons from other groups underrepresented in biomedical research. All application materials should be submitted to Dr. Sarah Cavanaugh at NIAIDDIRSearch@niaid.nih.gov.

Completed applications will be reviewed starting April 25, 2019 and will be accepted until the position is filled. For additional information about the position, please contact Dr. Frank DeLeo, Chief, LB, at FDeLeo "at" niaid.nih.gov.

More information can be found here.

The Department of Microbiology & Immunology at the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB), Galveston, is seeking to recruit tenure-track faculty at an academic rank of Assistant, Associate or Full Professor with an MD, PhD, DVM or equivalent degree. The preferred areas of vector biology research include: i) biology of disease-transmitting vectors (mosquitos, ticks, mites, or sand flies), ii) vector-pathogen-host interactions, and iii) animal models of pathogen transmission for infectious diseases. The successful candidate should be highly productive with an established record of extramural funding or the potential to establish robust research programs in one or more of the above areas. The successful applicant should be amenable to collaborative studies with other investigators studying the pathogenesis, ecology and epidemiology of infectious diseases in the department, and to teach and mentor graduate and medical students. Salary and academic rank are commensurate with experience; excellent benefits and highly competitive startup packages are offered.

UTMB has many highly interactive research centers, including the Western Gulf Center of Excellence for Vector-borne Diseases, one of 5 funded by the CDC. It is also home to the Galveston National Laboratory, an NIH-funded national biocontainment laboratory with excellent infrastructure to conduct research in BSL-2, -3 and -4 on diverse animal models of infectious diseases, including arthropod containment levels 1-4 and extensive insectaries. The Department, with 33 full-time faculty, is ranked among the top of its peers in NIH funding. Interested candidates should send their curriculum vitae, a statement of personal and academic goals, and names of three references electronically to:
Lynn Soong, MD, PhD, Vice Chair for Research
Professor, Department of Microbiology & Immunology
University of Texas Medical Branch
301 University Blvd. Route 1070
Galveston, TX, 77555-1070
lysoong "at" utmb.edu

The Department of Entomology at The Pennsylvania State University invites applications for an Assistant Professor of Arthropod Vector Biology and/or Ecology. This is a nine-month, tenure track position with a 75% research and 25% teaching appointment. The successful candidate will be expected to conduct empirical or theoretical research focused on either the biology of mosquitoes, ticks, and/or other vectors or the epidemiology of vectored human infectious diseases, with a focus on systems relevant to the United States. The successful applicant is expected to establish a strong externally funded research program, conduct independent high-quality research, publish in leading scholarly journals, and mentor graduate students. Expectation of developing both resident and online courses and materials for pests affecting people. The ability to engage a diverse population of faculty, staff, and students at the Departmental, College, and University levels is an important aspect of this academic appointment. This position requires a Ph.D. in entomology, ecology, or related sciences with demonstrated accomplishments in research relevant to arthropod vectors. The successful candidate must have completed all degree requirements by the appointment date. Expertise that will complement existing departmental strengths in IPM, chemical ecology, vector biology, genomics or disease ecology is desired. Candidates with an interest in advancing modern and diverse pest management technologies in public health systems are preferred. Salary is commensurate with the candidate's experience and qualifications. An excellent benefits package is provided. Start date of August 1, 2019 or as negotiated. A complete application includes the following: a letter of application, names and addresses of three professional references, a curriculum vitae, statement of research and teaching interests and official transcripts. Review of applications will begin on April 15, 2019.

More information can be found here: https://psu.jobs/job/85565

A Postdoctoral Scientist position is immediately available in the Department of Environmental Sciences within the Center for Vector Biology and Zoonotic Diseases. This two year appointment is funded through a CDC Northeast Vector Biology Centers of Excellence award. Powassan virus and deer tick virus are the only North American members of the TBE serocomplex and represent genotypically distinct yet serologically indistinguishable lineages. Previous studies have suggested that Eurasian TBEV diverged rapidly into distinct subtypes when adapting to new vector species rather than by gradual evolution. The goal of this project is to perform experimental evolution studies in order to gain insights into the genetics of POWV-DTV divergence and investigate the adaptive potential of Powassan virus to new tick species that could lead to range expansion and increased risk of human infection. The individual is expected to undertake fundamental cellular and molecular biological studies pertinent to the aims of the project. In addition, we are seeking a highly creative and independent individual that will be able to identify new and interesting research directions stemming from these studies and pursue post-doctoral funding opportunities. Candidates must have a Ph.D. degree in a relevant field (preferably molecular biology, genetics, virology, and vector biology), strong written and oral communication skills, and a record of high productivity in research. Experience analyzing NGS data is desired. The current appointment is for two years and depending on performance and available funding may be extended. The salary and benefits are competitive. Interested persons should submit, to the group leader below, electronic copies of: (1) a letter of application specifically addressing how the applicant meets the job requirements as listed above, especially experience in the stated fields, and including a statement of career goals; (2) a CV; (3) contact information for at least two references and (4), if applicable, TN visa eligibility or a copy of documentation authorizing work status within the U.S.. Applications will be evaluated as they arrive; incomplete applications will not be considered. Dr. Doug Brackney, Department of Environmental Sciences, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 123 Huntington Street, P. O. Box 1106, New Haven, CT 06504. doug.brackney@ct.gov.